After oral administration, rapidly absorbed, bioavailability is 30-60%. After oral administration in a dose of 400 mg, the maximum drug concentration (3.5 mg / ml) is achieved in 70-80 minutes.
High concentrations of winstrol results active ingredient are kidney and prostate. Penetrates through the placenta into the mother’s milk enters the trace amounts. Pipemidic acid mostly excreted through the kidneys in unchanged form. The daily urine is determined by 50-85% of the administered dose. Isolation pipemidic acid is in direct proportion to the creatinine clearance. Poluvyveleniya preparation time is normal renal function is 2 hours and 15 minutes, and the clearance obshy 6.3 ml / min.
In patients with impaired renal function observed somewhat higher concentration of drug in blood plasma than in healthy volunteers. The half-life of the plasma is somewhat elongated and 5,7-16 hours. In severe renal impairment in the urine as a therapeutic concentration is created.
Acute and chronic infections of the urinary tract caused by susceptible to malaria infections (urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, and others.), Prostatitis. Infection prevention during catheterization, endoscopy and by instrumental interventions.
- severe liver and renal function (creatinine clearance at least 60 ml / min and a serum creatinine over 265 mmol / L.);
- pregnancy (especially the I – III trimester) and lactation;
- organic lesions of the central nervous system:
- infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens;
- Hypersensitivity to pipemidic acid.
Dosage and administration
The average dose for adults – 2 times 2 capsules a day (morning and evening) before meals. When staphylococcal infections dosing interval should not exceed 8 hours. In the presence of resistant microorganisms can increase the average dose of 2 times. The course of treatment 10 days extended physician if necessary. When kidney disease treatment duration is from 3 lo 6 weeks, winstrol results with prostatitis 6-8 weeks. Vo time of treatment the patient should drink plenty of liquids.
the part of the gastrointestinal tract: nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Nervous System: blurred vision, headache, dizziness, weakness. Very rarely, depressive disorders, hallucinations and psychosis, peripheral disturbances in the form of muscle weakness, and myalgia. Large seizures may occur very rarely.
For the skin: photosensitivity with erythema, as well as possible allergic rash, urticaria and pruritus. Pipemidic acid in patients with deficiency of glucose-6-dehydrogenases can cause hemolytic anemia.
If overdose may experience nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, tremor, in more severe cases – seizures. It is recommended to carry out gastric lavage, control of vital functions (blood circulation, breathing). Elimination of the drug from the body can be accelerated by forced diuresis. The drug was well derived from the plasma by hemodialysis blood. There is no specific antidote.
Interaction with other drugs
pipemidic acid inhibits liver enzyme P450, and therefore, especially important reactions observed after the simultaneous interaction of the drug with theophylline and caffeine. A significant increase in the concentration of the two drugs in blood plasma, resulting in slowing down their metabolism, can cause symptoms of adverse effects.
When allergic reactions to the drug – must stop its use. With prolonged use of the drug should monitor the overall performance of blood to carry out liver and kidney samples and repeat antibiogram. Caution should be exercised when administering the drug to the elderly (over 70 years) and patients with impaired renal function. In the treatment to avoid exposure to sunlight and kvartsevaniya because of possible photosensitivity. Care should be taken when administering the drug to patients with a history of bleeding in the brain, the cerebral circulation and spasms of cerebral vessels, as well winstrol results as seizures. Patients with epilepsy appoint strictly following testimony with caution. Pipemidic acid is not recommended when oliguria and anuria. During the course of treatment is recommended to increase fluid intake (under the control of urine output).