With respect to Gram-negative strains effectively acts as dividing cells and cells in the resting stage; if strains grampolozhigelnyh – only cells winstrol for sale in the process of mitotic division. It has a wide spectrum of action.
It is active against most aerobic gram-negative bacteria:
of Escherichia coli, of Klebsiella spp, and indolpolozhitelnye indolotritsatelnye Proteus spp, including.. Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter spp., Morganella morganii, Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pasteurella multocida, Campylobacter spp., Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp., Salmonella spp, Shigella spp .;. aerobic gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus spp, (including and not producing penicillinase and metitsillinoustoychivye), Streptococcus spp, including.. Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiac, Corynebacterium diphtheriae , Listeria monocytogenes; intracellular bacteria: Legionella spp. (including Legionella pneumophila), Brucella spp., Chlamydia spp., and in the case of bacteria that produce beta-lactamase. Suppresses the livelihoods of Mycoplasma spp. . and Helicobacter spp Moderately susceptible microorganisms: of Streptococcus pneumoniae, of Acinetobacter spp, of Clostridium perfringens, of Pseudomonas spp, of Chlamydia trachomatis… Resistant microorganisms: Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, Treponema spp, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. In diseases caused by moderately sensitive micro-organisms require in vitro sensitivity determination. It inhibits microsomal oxidation in the liver cells.
The absorption – high, 20 minutes after oral administration of a single dose (400 mg) was absorbed to 90%. The time to maximum concentration (4 mcg / ml) – 90 120 m, a therapeutic concentration is maintained for 12-15 hours after repeated administration the maximum concentration (Cmax) in the blood – 10 ug / ml.; concentration in bronchial mucosa – 5 mkg / ml; the ratio between the concentration in bronchial mucosa and blood – 100%. Relationship to plasma proteins -. 25-30%
It penetrates the tissues and body fluids, including in the bronchial secretion, lung, prostate, spinal fluid, and bone. The volume of distribution – 1.5-1.8 l / kg. Concentration in cerebrospinal fluid after three-fold administration of 400 mg – 4.5 g / ml, with increasing doses up to 800 mg -9.8 mg / ml; concentration in CSF is 89% of that in plasma. The concentration in other organs and tissues 12 hours after the last dose: thyroid gland – 11.4 g / g, the salivary glands – 2.2 g / g, the skin -7.6 mg / g, the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx – 6 g / g, the amygdala – 9 mg / . g muscle -5.6 g / g
is metabolized in the liver by methylation dimetilpefloksatsina before (possess significant antibacterial activity), oxidized to N-oxide and conjugated with glucuronic acid to form a glucuronide pefloxacin.
The half-life – 8-10 hours with the reintroduction . – 12-13 hours excreted by the kidneys – 60% in the bile – 30% in an unmodified form; partly in the form of metabolites. Concentration of unchanged drug in urine within 1-2 h after administration of – 25 pg / ml. 12-24 h – 15 ug / ml. Unmodified pefloxacin and its metabolites are detected in the urine within 84 hours after the final administration. It is poorly dialyzed (23% extraction rate).
Treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases caused by susceptible to malaria infections:
- kidney and urinary tract infections;
- pelvic infections (including adnexitis and prostatitis);
- infections of the gastrointestinal tract (including salmonella, typhoid fever);
- infection of the gallbladder and biliary tract infections (cholecystitis, cholangitis, empyema of the gall bladder);
- abdominal infections (intra-abdominal abscesses);
- infections of bones and joints;
- skin and soft tissue (including those caused by staphylococci resistant to penicillin);
- infections of the lower respiratory tract;
- JlOP-organ infections (including chronic sinusitis, severe otitis externa);
- chlamydia, winstrol for sale chancroid.
Hypersensitivity, deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hemolytic anemia), pregnancy, lactation, age 18 years. Cerebral arteriosclerosis, cerebral blood flow, organic lesions of the central nervous system, epileptic syndrome of unknown etiology, renal and / or liver failure.
Dosing and Administration
Inside, on an empty stomach, the dose selected individually depending on the location and severity of infection and the susceptibility of microorganisms. Prescribers 1 tablet (400 mg), 2 times a day (every 12 hours), the average daily dose – 800 mg in 2 hours. The maximum daily dose – 1200 mg. Tablets are swallowed without chewing, and washed down with plenty of water. In the treatment of certain infections of the genitourinary drug system appoint 1 (400 mg) tablet per day.
For the treatment of gonorrhea in men and women administered the drug only once, at a dose of 800 mg.
In patients with impaired liver function requires correction dosing regimen: for minor violations of the drug is prescribed in 400 mg / day; with more severe violations – every 36 hours; in severe liver disease interval between injections is extended to 2 days.
Patients with impaired renal function (when creatinine clearance below 20 ml / min), the single dose should be 50% of the average dose – when the multiplicity of destination 2 times a day, or a full single dose is administered 1 time per day. Elderly dose is reduced by about ⅓.
Side effect On the part of the nervous system: depression, headache, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, seizure, anxiety, agitation, tremor, rarely – seizures. Co is part of the digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, decreased appetite, flatulence, pseudomembranous colitis, transient increase in “liver” transaminases, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis, liver necrosis. From the urinary system:crystalluria, rarely glomerulonephritis, dysuria. Allergic reactions: skin rash, itching, hives, skin flushing, photosensitivity, rarely – angioneurotic edema, bronchospasm, arthralgia. From the hematopoietic system, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, eosinophilia. Other: tachycardia, myalgia, tendonitis, candidiasis.
Overdosing Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, confusion, mental stimulation; in severe cases – loss of consciousness, seizures. Treatment: gastric lavage, activated charcoal. Ensure medical examination of the patient, sufficient fluid intake of the patient; if necessary spend symptomatic therapy. Hemodialysis is not an effective method of removal from the body of the quinolone derivatives.
The interaction with other drugs
pefloxacin reduces theophylline metabolism in the liver, resulting in increased concentrations of theophylline in the plasma and the central nervous system (to avoid the development of toxicity is necessary to reduce the dose of theophylline). Significantly reduces prothrombin index (in patients receiving indirect anticoagulants, requires constant monitoring of blood picture). Cimetidine and others. Inhibitors of microsomal oxidation increase the half-life, reduced total body clearance, but do not affect the volume of distribution and renal clearance.
Enveloping drugs slow down absorption.
Concomitant use of beta-lactam antibiotics can prevent the development of resistance during treatment of staphylococcal infections. Aminoglycosides, piperacillin, azlocillin, ceftazidime increase the antibacterial effect (including the infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa).
Drugs that block winstrol for sale tubular secretion, slow down the excretion of pefloxacin.
When mixed infections, pelvic infections combined with drugs active against anaerobes (metronidazole, clindamycin).
During treatment patients should receive plenty of fluids in compliance with adequate urine output (to avoid crystalluria). Due to the possible occurrence of photosensitivity during treatment can not be affected by UV radiation.
For patients with severe liver and kidney disease requires a dose proportional to the degree of damage compensation.
If you experience during or after treatment with pefloxacin severe and prolonged diarrhea is necessary to exclude the development of pseudomembranous colitis (requires immediate withdrawal preparation and administration of appropriate therapy).
In the period of treatment must be careful when driving and other lesson. potentially hazardous activities that require high concentration and psychomotor speed reactions. buy testosterone with credit card eu pharmaceuticals reviews where can i buy legal steroids